Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta exceeding the normal diameter by more than 50 percent, and is the most common form of aortic aneurysm. Approximately 90 percent of abdominal aortic aneurysms are infra-renal. The abdominal aorta is the most common site of arterial aneurysms. a diameter greater than 3 cm considered to be aneurysmal. The majority… Read more »

Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease

Conventional risk factors Advancing age: Over age 45 years in men and over age 55 years in women Family history of early heart disease (Men younger than age 55 and Women younger than 65) Modifiable risk factors High Cholesterol (lowering total and LDL cholesterol levels significantly reduced CAD, additionally using statin drugs have provided conclusive… Read more »

Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (formerly primary pulmonary hypertension and also called: plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy) is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure with no apparent cause.  Drug- and toxin-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension has been most clearly linked to anorexigens, including aminorex, fenfluramine, and dexfenfluramine. Although these agents are no longer used, observational studies link amphetamines, methamphetamines, and… Read more »

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome , also known as lupus anticoagulant syndrome, or Hugh syndrome  is characterized by the presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies, which are frequently linked to pregnancy losses in the pre-embryonic (<6 wk), embryonic (6-9 wk), and fetal (≥10 wk gestation) time periods. 10-20% of women with early losses are positive for the anti-phospholipid antibodies,… Read more »

Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Endocarditis

Antibiotic prophylaxis questions used to be difficult and confusing (and easy to get wrong), but thankfully the current recommendations are very straight forward. The board will put a bunch of confounding (superficially scary) cardiac histories and exam points, and lead you to “want” to give antibiotic prophylaxis, but don’t be fooled!! If whatever they put doesn’t… Read more »

Acute Pericarditis

Acute pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium characterized by chest pain, pericardial friction rub, and associated ECG changes. The term “Perimyocardities” or “Myopericarditis” is used when there is inflammation of myocardium along with pericardium. Acute pericarditis is recorded in about 0.1 to 0.2 percent of hospitalized patients and 5 percent of patients admitted to… Read more »

First degree AV block

First-degree heart block, or first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block, is defined as a prolongation of the PR interval on the ECG to more than 200 msec and is actually a misnomer (there is no “block”). While the conduction is slowed, there are no missed beats. ECG of a patient with first-degree heart block is shown below…. Read more »

Hypertension Management 2015

  Hypertension remains one of the most prevalent causes of preventable disease. The JNC 8 was released a year ago, and (for a change) some of the guidelines were relaxed, and others made more clear. Treatment of appropriate patients remains critical, and initial treatment options have been narrowed. As of 2010, only 47% of all… Read more »

Acute Coronary Syndrome

Approach to Chest Pain Chest pain is the second most common presenting complaint, resulting in approximately six million annual visits to emergency departments in the United States. Diseases of the heart, aorta, lungs, esophagus, stomach, mediastinum, pleura, and abdominal viscera may all cause chest discomfort.  Clinicians in the ED must focus on the immediate recognition… Read more »


Great Review Video !! Statin Benefit Groups 1. Individuals with clinical ASCVD 2. Individuals with primary elevations of LDL–C ≥190 mg/dL 3. Individuals 40 to 75 years of age with diabetes with LDL-C 70-189 mg/dL 4. Individuals without clinical ASCVD or diabetes who are 40 to 75 years of age with LDL-C 70 to 189 mg/dL… Read more »