Malignant External Otitis

Presentation Malignant external otitis is a severe infection of the external auditory canal causing temporal bone osteomyelitis. It usually occurs in elderly diabetics that report severe unrelenting otalgia, temporal headaches, and a purulent otorrhea. The organism is usually (95% of the time) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The infection begins as an external otitis that progresses into an… Read more »

Lyme disease

It is a tick-borne (Ixodes tick species) disorder from systemic infection by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme borrelia). With more than 25,000 cases reported annually, it is the most common vector-borne infection in the United States, but also ccurs in Europe, Asia, and Australia. Presentation Primary infection may manifest by an expanding erythematous annular skin lesion… Read more »

Toxic Shock Syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a toxin-mediated acute life-threatening illness, usually precipitated by infection with either Staphylococcus aureus or group A Streptococcus.  TSS is a rare condition (reported incidence in menstruating women is 1:100 000). It is caused by any of several related toxic exoproteins produced by Staph. aureus. TSST-1 is the toxin most frequently implicated and enterotoxin… Read more »

Tuberculous peritonitis

Occurs either by direct spread from ruptured lymph node or intraabdominal organs or by hemathogenous seeding Presentation Nonspecific abdominal pain, fever, ascites are common signs and should raise suspicion. Coexisting liver disease complicates the diagnosis. Diagnosis Patients with tuberculous peritonitis often have a positive skin test result or infiltrates on their chest radiograph. The peritoneal… Read more »

Herpes Zoster

Pain often precedes the rash in a majority of patients; it is typically distributed in a dermatomal fashion and is usually restricted to one dermatome, with possible involvement of adjacent dermatomes.  The patients describe the pain as “burning,” “throbbing,” or “stabbing.”  Typically the rash is grouped herpetiform vesicles developing on the erythematous base.  It may… Read more »


Clinical picture is dominated by painful genital ulcers and marked inguinal adenopathy. Chancroid is caused by Haemophilus ducreyi, a small, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacillus that is highly infective. Very rare in the US, it remains prevalent in certain underdeveloped regions such as Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. Outbreaks occur in cities among workers in the sex trade… Read more »

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) was the first human retrovirus discovered. HTLV belongs to the Retroviridae family. Retroviruses are RNA viruses that use an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from RNA. The DNA is subsequently incorporated into the host’s genome. HTLV predominantly affects T lymphocytes. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are both involved in actively… Read more »

Legionnaire’s Disease

Caused by Legionella pneumophila The Legionella bacteria (the cause for Legionnaires’s Disease) are found naturally in the environment, usually in water. The bacteria grow best in warm water, like the kind found in Hot tubs Cooling towers Hot water tanks Large plumbing systems Decorative fountains They do not seem to grow in car or window air-conditioners. The bacteria are not spread… Read more »

HIV / AIDS Infections

HIV is a lentivirus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system allows opportunistic infections and malignancies to thrive. The most common route of infection varies with the population. Co-infection with other viruses that share similar routes of  transmission, such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and… Read more »

CSF Analysis

Here are the normal parameters : Pressure          = 50-180 mmH2O Color                = clear RBC count       = 0-4 x 10^6/L WBC count      = 0-4 x 10^6/L Glucose            = >60% of the serum level Protein             = < 0.45 g/L Microbiology   = sterile//no growth Subarachnoid haemorrhage : Pressure increased bloody RBC count increased WBC = normal/increased glucose = normal protein = increased… Read more »