Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a disorder that predominantly affects obese women of childbearing age. The primary problem is chronically elevated intracranial pressure which presents generally with chronic headaches, visual field impact, papilledema (as in the photo to the right), which may lead to blindness. Previously known as pseudotumor cerebri and benign intracranial hypertension,  patients usually present… Read more »


Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) – (Von Recklinghausen disease) is characterized by multiple neurofibromas (benign tumors of peripheral nerves), café au lait spots (six of them bigger than 1.5 cm in diameter is enough for diagnosis), hamartomas of the iris (Lisch nodules). Other features include axillary freckling, pseudoarthrosis of the tibia, hydrocephalus (due to aqueductal stenosis),… Read more »

Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare autoimmune disorder of peripheral nerves in which antibodies form against acetylcholine (ACh) nicotinic postsynaptic receptors at the myoneural junction. A reduction in the number of ACh receptors results in a characteristic pattern of progressively reduced muscle strength with repeated use of the muscle and recovery of muscle strength following… Read more »

Progressive supranuclear palsy

Progressive supranuclear palsy is an uncommon brain disorder that affects movement, control of walking (gait) and balance, speech, swallowing, vision, mood and behavior, and thinking. The disease results from damage to nerve cells in the brain.  It is a sporadic degenerative disorder with neuronal loss, gliosis, and neurofibrillary tangles in the midbrain, pons, basal ganglia,… Read more »

Mononeuritis multiplex

This is a simultaneous or sequential involvement of noncontiguous nerve trunks.  Mononeuritis multiplex is a painful asymmetric asynchronous sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy involving isolated damage to at least 2 separate nerve territories. Multiple nerves in random areas of the body can be affected. As the condition worsens, it becomes less multifocal and more symmetric…. Read more »

Huntington’s Disease

Huntington’s Disease is a hereditary neuro-degenerative disorder caused by an expansion of a repeating CAG triplet series in the huntingtin gene (huntingtin is the gene and Huntington is the disease . . . don’t ask why)  on chromosome 4, which results in a protein with an abnormally long polyglutamine sequence. This abnormality affects muscle coordination and… Read more »


Classifications From the 2nd Edition of The International Headache Classification (ICHD-2) ____________________________________________________________________________ PRIMARY HEADACHES MIGRAINE WITHOUT AURA. . . Recurrent headache disorder manifesting in attacks lasting 4-72 hours. Typical characteristics of the headache are unilateral location, pulsating quality, moderate or severe intensity, aggravation by routine physical activity and association with nausea and/or photophobia and phonophobia…. Read more »


Resting tremor, or Parkinsonian tremor, occurs when the muscle is relaxed, such as when the hands are lying on the lap or hanging next to the trunk while standing or walking.  It may be seen as a shaking of the limb, even when the person is at rest.  Often, the tremor affects only the hand or fingers…. Read more »

CSF Analysis

Here are the normal parameters : Pressure          = 50-180 mmH2O Color                = clear RBC count       = 0-4 x 10^6/L WBC count      = 0-4 x 10^6/L Glucose            = >60% of the serum level Protein             = < 0.45 g/L Microbiology   = sterile//no growth Subarachnoid haemorrhage : Pressure increased bloody RBC count increased WBC = normal/increased glucose = normal protein = increased… Read more »

Controlled Substances

There is a certain degree of confusion about controlled substances, which meds fall into what category, which have the highest abuse potential, and so on.  Physicians’ prescribing habits are being scrutinized on a state and national level as it relates to pain medication administration.  This attention will no doubt find it’s way on the boards…. Read more »