Trigger finger

A trigger finger is one of the most common causes of hand pain and disability.  In it, the flexor tendon causes painful popping or snapping as the patient flexes and extends their finger. Presentation They may present with a digit locked in a particular position, most often flexion, which may require gentle, passive manipulation into full extension… Read more »

Olecranon bursitis

It is inflammation of the bursa olecranii (located between olecranon and skin) commonly due to repetitive trauma and about 5% each by gout and Staphylococcus aureus infection. Patients complain of pain and marked swelling over the olecranon (swelling is usually very prominent but sometimes may be minimal). Examination is characterized by swelling, redness, increased surface… Read more »

Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow)

Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is injury and inflammation of common extensor tendon at lateral epicondyle of the humerus (usually due to overuse). Patients complain of pain and weakness of the forearm (pain may be localized or more diffuse). Examination shows local epicondylar tenderness, aggravation of pain with wrist extension, and radial deviation of hand against… Read more »

Rotator cuff tendonitis

It is an inflammation of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons lying between humeral head and the acromial processus (due to overuse – repeated abduction and elevation of upper arm). Patients complain of pain in outer parts of shoulder when lifting arm over the head or reaching to the back. Focal subacromial tenderness is found on… Read more »

Biceps tendinitis

Biceps tendinitis is inflammation of the long head tendon in the bicipital groove, which can lead to rupture (10-12% of cases – the highest of any tendon in the body). Patients complain of pain in anterior aspect of the shoulder that is aggravated by lifting or overhead pushing and pulling. Examination reveals localized tenderness over the… Read more »

Rotator cuff tendon tear

It is the loss of normal integrity of supraspinatus or infraspinatus tendons – partial or complete rupture (occurs mostly in patients with rotator cuff tendonitis – 3-7% of cases, but may be caused by acute injury). Patients complain of weakness and may notice a “pop” or sharp stabbing pain at the time of rupture. Weakness… Read more »

Frozen shoulder syndrome

This is a term used to describe loss of significant portion of normal range of motion in glenohumeral joint (due to loss of elasticity in joint capsule and adhesions – adhesive capsulitis caused by injury in the areas of shoulder or neck or paralytic stroke). Patients complain of inability to scratch back, fasten bra, shave… Read more »

Acromioclavicular (AC) strain or osteoarthritis

It is inflammation, osteoarthritis of AC joint, or strain, partial or complete rupture of coracoacromial and/or coracoclavicular ligament (leading to 1-degree, 2-degree and 3-degree separation respectively). Patients complain of pain and swelling at the AC joint. Examination will reveal point tenderness at the joint, swelling, and sometimes AC joint widening with traction. Pain may be… Read more »


Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disorder arising from biochemical breakdown of articular cartilage in the synovial joints which further leads to the degradation of  the underlying subchondral bone.  It is the second most common diagnosis made in older people consulting their general practitioner, and the commonest cause of disability at older ages. Presentation Symptoms may include joint pain, stiffness… Read more »

Gluteus maximus bursitis

This bursa is located between superior trochanter and median gluteal tendon. Repetitive flexion of hip and direct pressure are aggravating factors for this bursitis. Symptoms are identical to those of trochanteric bursitis: Pain over hip and outer aspect of thigh and difficulties walking. Examination reveals tenderness above greater trochanter, aggravation with hip abduction against resistance… Read more »