Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome , also known as lupus anticoagulant syndrome, or Hugh syndrome  is characterized by the presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies, which are frequently linked to pregnancy losses in the pre-embryonic (<6 wk), embryonic (6-9 wk), and fetal (≥10 wk gestation) time periods. 10-20% of women with early losses are positive for the anti-phospholipid antibodies,… Read more »


Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disorder arising from biochemical breakdown of articular cartilage in the synovial joints which further leads to the degradation of  the underlying subchondral bone.  It is the second most common diagnosis made in older people consulting their general practitioner, and the commonest cause of disability at older ages. Presentation Symptoms may include joint pain, stiffness… Read more »

Psoriatic Arthritis

Psoriatic Arthritis is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy caused by the macrophage-induced enzymatic breakdown of bone, tendons, and cartilage. It effects 30% of people suffering from psoriasis. Psoriatic arthritis occurs more commonly in patients with tissue type HLA-B27. Treatment of psoriatic arthritis is similar to that of rheumatoid arthritis. More than 80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis will have… Read more »

Back Pain

  Back pain is the leading cause of activity limitation in people younger than 45, the second most frequent reason for seeking healthcare services, the fifth leading cause of hospitals admission, and the third leading cause for surgery. 60% of those who suffer from acute LBP recover in 6 weeks and up to 80-90% recover within… Read more »

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) which is also known as “brittle bone disease” is a congenital  bone disorder and has traditionally been viewed as an autosomal dominant disease but recently some autosomal recessive forms have been discovered. In osteogenesis imperfecta, pathological changes are seen in all tissues in which type 1 collagen is an important component (bone, ligament,… Read more »

Controlled Substances

There is a certain degree of confusion about controlled substances, which meds fall into what category, which have the highest abuse potential, and so on.  Physicians’ prescribing habits are being scrutinized on a state and national level as it relates to pain medication administration.  This attention will no doubt find it’s way on the boards…. Read more »


Anterior uveitis affects the front of the eye (usually the iris) and is the most common type. Only one eye is usually affected. Symptoms ~an aching, painful, red eye ~blurred or cloudy vision, ~a small pupil, ~an iris that may have a slightly different color ~sensitivity to light (photophobia), ~floaters (dots that move across the field of… Read more »

Polymyagia Rheumatica

Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a clinical syndrome characterized by severe aching and stiffness in the neck, shoulder girdle, and pelvic girdle in patients older than 50 years of age.  It causes severe pain in the proximal muscle groups; however, no evidence of disease is present at muscle biopsy. Patients >50 years old presenting with new… Read more »

Rheumatoid arthritis as office orthopedic problem

Overview Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term disease that leads to inflammation of the joints and surrounding tissues, but can also affect other organs. RA usually affects joints on both sides of the body equally. Wrists, fingers, knees, feet, and ankles are the most commonly affected. The disease often begins slowly, usually with only minor… Read more »